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Shoulder instability is a pathological condition of inability to maintain humeral head into to glenoid fossa. It is a condition of too much motion in the shoulder because of a compromise of some of the tissue around the shoulder like muscles, ligaments, tendons, capsules, and labrum. If there is any injury occur to these tissues, it can lead to atraumatic or traumatic shoulder instability.
Atraumatic instability usually results from repetitive overhead movement or congenital joint features. Traumatic instability may result from the dislocation (due to falling onto an outstretched hand). Instability can occur anteriorly, inferior, posteriorly, or in multi directions.
Shoulder instability can cause you either pain or decrease in performance, feeling of heavy shoulders, & hypermobility, etc.
Shoulder instability is commonly present in younger athletic active individuals, especially if they are playing overhead sports that are repetitive in nature, such as- Tennis players, volleyball players, baseball players, & cricket players, etc.
Physiotherapy treatment of shoulder instability are:
Strengthening exercises of shoulder muscles with thera band. Start exercise with the lightest resistance thera band that is ‘yellow’. Strengthening exercises includes-
Shoulder external rotation- be in standing or sitting on a chair and keep your elbow by your side at 90-degree flexion and hold the theraband with your both hands with thumbs up and then come outwards pulling. Slowly come back in by controlling the band. Start with 10-15 repetitions and progress to 20-25 repetitions and then increase the resistance.
Shoulder internal rotation- this time you are coming in toward your body. You have to hook one end of the band on the doorway or have somebody to hold it or wrap it around something. Still keeping your thumb up and elbow on your side, and coming in toward your stomach and then slowly coming back out.
Shoulder flexion- now anchor one end of thera band under your foot same side of your shoulder you going to be trained. Keep your elbow straight and bring your shoulder up to about a 90-degree angle and then slowly come back down.
Shoulder extension- keep the band anchored under your foot but now your thumb is facing forward, keep your elbow straight, and now coming back.
Modified pushups- come on your knees, lean forward, arms out in front of you, and straighten out your body, and then come down and back up. Start with 10-15 repetitions and increase the repetition progressively.

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