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Meniscal Tear Treatment and Rehabilitation

What to do after a meniscal tear?

The menisci are fibrocartilaginous structures that connect the femurs (thigh bones) and tibias (shin bones). There are two in each knee: the medial meniscus on the inside of the knee and the lateral meniscus on the outside. They work together to offer stress absorption and stability to the knee joint. A meniscal tear can be classified as either: Traumatic, or characterized by a particular method of harm. Non-traumatic alterations that occur as a result of aging (degenerative meniscus tears).

They are frequently categorized based on their location and orientation. Vertical longitudinal, vertical radial, horizontal, oblique, or complicated tears are all possible. Bucket-handle tears are vertical or oblique tears that twist and fold over within the joint.

Because meniscal tears are prevalent in patients who have no symptoms, non-operative therapy is advised in the majority of cases.

Causes:

Athletes frequently have meniscus damage as a result of a sports injury. A meniscus can be torn or burst entirely. A lateral or medial meniscus rupture might be partial or complete. Aside from rips caused by sports, osteoarthritis can cause a spontaneous meniscal tear due to deterioration and weakening of the meniscal structure.

Symptoms:

  • There is a popping sound and some residual soreness.
  • When the torn component of the meniscus travels under the femoral condyle, that produces the knee clicks sound.
  • Excessive pressure is cause by prolonged knee hyperflexion when weight-bearing.
  • With a deteriorating meniscus, bending and loading the knee typically worsens the symptoms, and exercises like squatting and kneeling are difficult to bear.

Physiotherapy Management of Meniscal tear:

Physiotherapy is an example of conservative treatment; it focuses on quadriceps muscle strengthening to prevent subsequent quadriceps atrophy.

Meniscal tear treatment begins with cryotherapy using a cold pack, and the most recent therapeutic modalities include cryo air, which uses cold air at -32 degrees Celsius.

Exercises for strengthening and stretching the muscles surrounding the knee joint.

Strengthening activities: Strengthening exercises begin with isometric quadriceps movements. Quad set with the patient supine, uninvolved knee flexed, and involved knee straight, for example. The patient tries to straighten his leg by pushing his knee down on the table.

Isometric hamstring workouts include hamstring sets with the patient supine, uninvolved knee straight, and involved knee in partial flexion. As well as pressing the heel against the table or pillow.

Isotonic non-weight-bearing exercises: The short-arc quad exercise is also known as terminal knee extension. Quad full-arc workout As well as hamstring curls.

Then there are weight-bearing resistance exercises.

Apart from these also there are:

  • Flexibility exercises.
  • Joint mobilization.
  • Balance and agility.

Advanced Physiotherapy treatment, such as:

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