Compartment syndrome and its Rehabilitation

Compartment syndrome and its Rehabilitation

What is Compartment syndrome?

Compartment syndrome typically happens in the limbs usually in the lower leg or the forearm. العاب المال Any increase of cellular or extracellular volume or a decrease of the volume capacity like with some external compression will lead to an increase of the pressure inside the compartment this will compress the structures within and the first ones to feel the effect of compression are the veins, as the pressure increases the arteries will become compressed next and this obstructs the normal blood flow this cuts off the oxygen supply and hypoxia develops which causes cells to start releasing substances which cause capillaries to become leaky so fluid leaks out causing extracellular edema that further increases inter compartment pressure.

The most common causes of compartment syndrome are:

Bleeding inside the compartment typically occurs with long bone fractures like the tibia and the forearm bones. In penetrating wounds and surgical procedures that injure blood vessels. Other causes are swelling of the tissue after severe burns, intravenous drug injection, repetitive use of the injured muscles, or vigorous muscle contraction like in seizures. Any limb compression-like from a crush injury or an unsuitably placed cast can also lead to compartment syndrome.

Sigh & symptoms are:

  • Sharp & deep pain
  • Pain worsens with stretching
  • Paraesthesia
  • Pulselessness
  • Pallor
  • Paralysis
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Affected muscles are hard like woods

Some complications caused due to Compartment syndrome are Necrosis which is the death of the tissue due to lack of oxygen, and contractures. Another complication is rhabdomyolysis where muscles break down.

Surgical treatment of Compartment syndrome is called Fasciotomy where the fascia is cut open relieving the pressure and re-establishing normal blood flow, fascia can be left open for a few days until the cause of increased pressure is treated.

Physiotherapy rehabilitation of compartment syndrome:

The primary aim of rehab is to regain the Range of motion and strength of the affected limb.

Post-surgery you may have numbness and pain around the incision and the aim of physiotherapy is to get you relief from pain, for this we use Cold therapy with a cold pack, & cryo-air.

firstly, Soft tissue massage.

Secondly, the Lymphatic drainage technique.

Thirdly, Passive mobilization of the affected joint.

Also, Stretching exercises.

Strengthening exercises for an affected area such as for the foot you can do- toe curl, picking marbles, toe squeeze, toe raise, dorsal/plantar flexion & inversion/eversion using a resistance band.

Cardiorespiratory training with stationary cycling, or trade mill, etc.

Combination machine therapy to prevent scar tissue formation.

Super Inductive System to mobilize the joints.

High-Intensity class 4 laser therapy for tissue healing.

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