What are Running Injuries?
Injuries resulting from running are referred to as running injuries. Actually, it’s because of improper running rather than running itself. Pushing yourself too hard during a run generally results in injury. Your body’s motions also have an impact. New runners, those who abruptly increase their training load or intensity, and those who train for longer distances all carry a higher risk of injury.
There are 6 types of runners:
- Sprinters – who run up to 400 m with high speed.
- Middle-distance track runners- who run 800-3000 m with fast to moderate speed.
- Long-distance track runners- who run 5000 or 10,000 m.
- Cross-country runners.
- Marathon runners, and
- Recreational runners.
FACTORS AFFECTING RUNNING-RELATED INJURIES:
The overloading of musculoskeletal components as a result of recurrent microtrauma and biomechanical variables are the main risk factors for running-related injuries. Other elements include the running surface, the right footwear, and nutrition. Etc.
Running injuries arise and occur more frequently as a result of inefficient running biomechanics. A runner’s body will be less able to withstand external forces and will be more susceptible to overuse problems if they have poor biomechanical patterns and running form.
This type of overuse injury is common. There are numerous potential causes of a runner’s knee. it frequently occurs When your kneecap is out of place.
Your kneecap’s cartilage may deteriorate with time. When that occurs, you could experience kneecap pain, especially if:
- Going up or down stairs.
This is a small bone crack that hurts and is uncomfortable. Runners frequently experience pain in their feet and shins. It frequently happens when you engage in a new activity too soon after your body has not yet adapted to it.
This discomfort is felt along the shin bone on the front or inside of the lower leg. Shin splints are frequently caused by abrupt changes in your exercise routine, such as running farther or more frequently. Usually, pain is more evenly distributed over the bone. Shin splints are more prone to occur in those with flat feet.
The Achilles tendon is undergoing persistent degenerative changes. Especially in the morning and after exercise, Achilles tendinitis causes pain, burning, and stiffness in the area of the tendon. It usually results from the tendon is repeatedly stressed. Excessively increasing your running distances can cause it. Calf muscle tension may also be a factor.
It is a small tear in muscle due to over stretching.
This occurs when the ligaments surrounding the ankle are unintentionally stretched or torn. it frequently occurs, When the foot twists or rolls inward.
It is the Plantar fascia inflammation That is the wide tissue band that runs from the heel to the toes on the bottom of the foot. Severe heel pain is typically the first symptom, especially while taking the first steps in the morning.
A high arch and tight calf muscles increase the risk of developing plantar fasciitis. Plantar fasciitis may be associated with increased activity, but it can also occur for unknown reasons.
IT band syndrome.
The outside of the knee is painful as a result of this syndrome. From the top of the hip to the outside of the knee, the IT band is a ligament that runs down the outside of the thigh.
When this ligament tightens and rubs against the knee bone, resulting in inflammation, IT band syndrome occurs.
These are bags of fluid on the skin’s surface. They are brought on by friction of skin with shoes or socks.
To help in avoiding blisters:
- change footwear frequently.
- Wear two layers of socks.
- To prevent blisters, apply petroleum jelly to blister-prone areas.
TREATMENT OF COMMON RUNNING INJURIES:
The majority of running injuries can be treated by using these management techniques. Consult a physiotherapist if the pain and discomfort persist. To treat your running injury, you might require more sophisticated care.
Rest: Running longer could make your injury worse. While you’re recovering, consider substituting other forms of exercise, like cycling or swimming.
Ice and cold therapy: Use ice packs to lessen pain, swelling, and inflammation.
Compression: To reduce swelling and stabilize the damaged area, wrap it with tape and apply splints and supports.
Elevate: Elevate your foot or ankle if you’ve injured it to lessen swelling.
Stretch: Gently stretch and massage the affected area to ease any discomfort and stiffness.
Pain relievers: As directed by your doctor, take over-the-counter painkillers or anti-inflammatory drugs.
Do not attempt to tolerate the pain. Take a pause from running if you experience pain. Consult your physiotherapist for care if the pain persists.
REHABILITATION OF RUNNING INJURIES
These essential elements are included in sports rehabilitation:
- Pain Management
- Flexibility and Joint ROM
- Strength and Endurance
- Proprioception and Co-ordination
- Functional Rehabilitation
- Use of Orthotics
There is a 5-part treatment plan that addresses the following aspects: Mobility, Stability, Form Drills, Gait Retraining, and Flexibility.
The first part of a training program is a dynamic warm-up. Dynamic stretches should always be included in any pre-activity warm-up. Since manual soft tissue release has been demonstrated to increase mobility without reducing muscular activity, it can also be used in a warm-up.
All three types of stretching—static, PNF, and dynamic—have been proven to have a favorable impact on joint range of motion.
Using an exercise program to address deficits in motor control and muscle strength. in the stability program, there is strength training, balancing as well as proprioception training also.
When a runner is undergoing rehabilitation, form drills are used to help with gait retraining and motor learning. Form exercises can be used to isolate particular aspects of running and to change the runner’s gait.
The primary biomechanical elements that contribute to running injuries, including as ground response forces, energy transfer at the knee and ankle, and center of mass excursion, can be effectively addressed through gait retraining. Gait training may include:
- Increase cadence.
- Encourage the foot to touch the ground beneath the body.
- Promote a softer landing.
- Promote taking lesser steps.
- Use feedback to keep your pelvis level.
- Encourage keeping the knees apart.
- Promote a slightly wider base of support.
- Make sure your feet are on each side of the line as you run in a straight line.
- While running, encourage increased trunk flexion.
The flexibility program includes- regular stretching, soft tissue mobilization, manual therapy and special technique such as cupping, etc.
TIPS TO PREVENT RUNNING INJURIES
You may avoid a lot of common running injuries by being cautious and planning ahead. Here are some suggestions for avoiding accidents.
Listen to your body:
Do not disregard pain. It’s okay to feel a bit sore. However, if you experience persistent discomfort in a muscle or joint that does not subside with rest, consult a physiotherapist.
Create a running plan:
Speak with a trainer and a physiotherapist prior to starting a running regimen. They can assist you in developing a running schedule that is in line with your present level of fitness and long-term objectives.
Warm-up and stretch:
Lack of stretching leads to a lot of injuries. Stretch your muscles thoroughly before and after running, paying special attention to your calf, hamstrings, groin, and quads. Before you begin stretching, warm up for five minutes, perhaps by walking. Injuries could result from stretching cold muscles.
Include ab workouts and weight training in your program. Muscles are strengthened, and core strength is developed.
Change up your workout routine. Do not just run. Try playing tennis, riding, swimming, or some other sport. This aids in preventing overuse injuries, which are more frequently brought on by performing the same exercise repeatedly.
Wear proper shoes:
Put on supportive shoes and socks that fit properly. Keep in mind that the recommended lifespan for running shoes is a particular number of kilometers. You should purchase a new pair of running shoes if the soles have worn thin. If you have foot issues like flat feet or high arches, you might want to think about wearing orthotic shoe inserts.
Until your body adjusts to the exercise, run on a smooth, level surface and stay away from severe slopes.
Drink plenty of water per day, or drink a sports drink if you are jogging for longer than an hour to replace electrolytes lost through sweat.