What is IT Band?
The gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and tensor fasciae latae muscle’s fascia come together at the hip to create a thick band of fascia ‘the iliotibial band (ITB)’. Pelvic stability and posture control are its two primary functions. The ITB is a crucial structure in lower extremity motion that runs along the lateral thigh.
Numerous clinical conditions, such as snapping hip syndrome and ITB syndrome, can develop secondary to a range of ITB dysfunction.
The IT Band does not truly have a bone attachment along the femur because of its insertion on the lateral tibial plateau at a protrusion known as Gerdy’s tubercle. As your knee flexes and stretches, it has the tendency to shift front to back. There is another anterior extension “the iliopatella band”, which joins the lateral patella and restricts the medial translation of the patella, .
FUNCTION OF IT BAND.
Proximal ITB function includes:
- Hip extension
- Hip abduction
- Lateral hip rotation
Distally, the position of the knee joint affects ITB function.
- Active knee extensor, full extension to 20 to 30 degrees of flexion.
IT BAND PATHOLOGIES:
One of the most often damaged structures during running is the iliotibial band. It is regarded as a non-traumatic overuse injury and frequently occurs together with underlying hip abductor muscle weakness.
Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is the most prevalent disorder associated with the IT Band. When the lateral side of the knee is palpated, superior to the joint line and inferior to the lateral femoral epicondyle, it typically exhibits pain and tenderness. Running causes pain on the lateral side of the knee, which worsens when going downhill or upstairs. Longer runs are also often more painful than shorter ones. most frequently found in runners.
Snapping Hip Syndrome (SHS) is another condition affecting the IT band. A snapping sensation or audible “snap” or “click” noise in or around the hip while it is moving are symptoms of this ailment. It could cause the patient to have pain and weakness that limit their functional mobility. The nature of this illness is often an overuse injury, with a higher incidence in sports like dancing, soccer, gymnastics, and running that require repetitive hip flexion and extension.
- To relieve pain there is Cryotherapy or heat, and Taping.
- other treatment techniques can be – Ultrasound therapy, Iontophoresis, or Phonophoresis
- Shockwave is the latest treatment for pain relief as well as it promotes healing.
- Myofascial treatment or myofascial release.
- Cupping therapy.
- Dry needling.
- Self-release with the foam roller.
Strengthening exercises such as:
- Hip Bridge with Resistance.
- Side Lying Hip Abduction.
- Lateral Band Walk.
- Side Plank.
- Training for neuromuscular control of gait.
- Also, training for other lower extremity muscle groups is important such as
- Quadriceps – lunges, squats, with the resistance band, etc.
- Hamstring – feet elevated long lever bridge isometric, and single leg slider.
- Gluts – lateral band walk, standing fire hydrant (single leg standing clamshell), clamshells with loop band.
- Calf – Knee straight as well as knee bend heel raise.
- Single leg RDL – for strengthening of erector spinae, glutes, hamstring, and adductor combined.
Modification in cycling technique. Pedaling correctly can reduce the likelihood of experiencing symptoms if riders have a tendency to cycle with their toes turned in.